Artist Biographies

Narratives of African American Art and Identity...

Terry Adkins
Born Washington, D.C., 1953
B.S., Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1975
M.S., Illinois State University, Normal, 1977
M.F.A., University of Kentucky, Lexington, 1979
Instructor, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, 1977
Associate Professor, SUNY New Paltz, New York, 1996
Major Exhibitions:
Project Binz 39, Zurich, 1986
Salama-Caro Gallery, London, 1987
Whitney Museum of American Art at Philip Morris, New York, 1995
International Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1997

Edward Mitchell Bannister
Born St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, c. 1826
Emigrated to Boston, c. 1848
Attended anatomy classes with Dr. William Brimmer, early 1860s
Photographer, daguerreotypist, 1863-1865
Portrait painter, 1863-1872
Moved to Providence, Rhode Island, 1869
Bronze Medal in Art, Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, 1876
Founder, Providence Art Club, 1872
Board of Directors, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island
Died 1901
Major Exhibitions:
Boston Art Club juried annual exhibitions
Hall of Fine Arts, Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 1876
Retrospective, Providence Art Club, Rhode Island 1891
Sharing Traditions: Five Black Artists in Nineteenth-Century America National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C., 1985
Newport Art Museum, New Jersey, 1990
Edward Mitchell Bannister 1828-1901, Kenkeleba House, New York, 1992

Richmond Barthé
Born Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, 1901
Chicago Art Institute, 1924-1928
Art Students League, New York, 1931
M.A., Xavier University, New Orleans, 1934
A.F.D., St. Francis College, Brooklyn, New York, 1947
Died 1989
Major Exhibitions:
Delphic Studios, New York, 1925
Caz-Delbos Gallery, New York, 1933
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1933, 1935, 1939
World's Fair, New York, 1947

Romare Bearden
Born Charlotte, North Carolina, 1914
B.S., New York University, 1935
Studied at Art Students League, New York, 1936-1937
Case Worker, Department of Social Services, 1938-1966
(intermittently)
Studied philosophy at Sorbonne, Paris, 1950
Began to work primarily in collage, 1963/1964
Died 1988
Major Exhibitions:
New Names in American Art, Baltimore Museum, Maryland, 1944
Samuel M. Kootz Gallery, New York, 1945
Cordier & Warren Gallery, New York, 1961
Projections, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1965
Romare Bearden: The Prevalence of Ritual, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1971
Memory and Metaphor: The Art of Romare Bearden, 1940-1987, Studio Museum in Harlem, 1991

John Biggers
Born Gastonia, North Carolina, 1924
Entered Hampton Institute, 1941
M.S., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1948
Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University, 1954
Joined staff at Texas Southern University, 1949
First trip to Africa, 1957
Retired as head of art department, Texas Southern University, 1983
Major Exhibitions:
Drawings and Paintings by John Biggers and Jack Boynton, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, 1954
Drawings of West Africa: Dr. John Biggers, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1962
The Web of Life in Africa: An Exhibition of Drawings and Paintings by John T. Biggers, African-American Cultural Center, Dallas 1978
John Biggers: Bridges, California Museum of Afro-American History and Culture, Los Angeles, 1983
Five Decades: John Biggers and the Hampton Art Tradition, Hampton University Museum, Hampton, Virginia, 1990
The Art of John Biggers: View from the Upper Room, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, and Hampton University Museum, Hampton, Virginia, 1995

Grafton Tyler Brown
Born Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1841
Moved to California, mid-1850s
Formed G.T. Brown & Co., 1867
Moved to Canada, 1882
Moved to Portland, 1886
Member of Portland Art Club, 1886-1890
Moved to St. Paul, Minnesota, 1892
Died 1918
Major Exhibitions:
The Oakland Museum, California, 1972
Two Centuries of Black American Art, Los Angeles County Museum, 1976
The Harmon and Harriet Kelley Collection of African American Art, San Antonio Museum of Art, 1994

Elizabeth Catlett
Born Washington, D.C., 1915
B.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1937
Instructor, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia, 1942-1943
Moved to Mexico, 1949
Member of Taller de Gràfica Popular, 1946-1966
Chairman, Sculpture Department, School of Fine Arts, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 1959
Major Exhibitions:
Solo Exhibition, New Orleans Museum of Art, 1983
Solo Exhibition, Hampton University, 1993
Three Generations of African American Women Sculptors: A Study in Paradox, Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum, Philadelphia, 1996-1998
Bearing Witness, Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia, 1996

Claude Clark
Born Rickingham, Georgia, 1915
Studied at the Philadelphia Museum School of Art, Philadelphia, 1935-1939
WPA, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1939-1942
Barnes Foundation Fellow, 1939-1944
Instructor, art department, Talladega College, 1948-1955
M.A., University of California at Berkeley, 1962
Instructor, Merritt College, Oakland, California, 1968-1981
Major Exhibitions:
A Retrospective Exhibition, 1937-1971, Paintings by Claude Clark, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1972
Claude Clark: On My Journey Now: A Selection of Paintings from 1940-1986, The Apex Museum, Atlanta, Georgia, 1996

Robert Colescott
Born Oakland, California, 1925
Studied with Fernand Léger, Paris, 1949-1950
B.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1949
M.A., University of California, Berkeley, 1952
Professor of art history, American College, Paris, 1967-1969
Instructor of painting and drawing, San Francisco Art Institute, 1976-1985
Professor of art, University of Arizona, Tucson, 1985 to present
Major Exhibitions:
Robert Colescott: A Retrospective, 1975-1986, San Jose Museum of Art, 1989
Katonah Museum of Art, Westchester County, New York, 1995
Brooklyn Museum, New York, 1993
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1994

Eldzier Cortor
Born Richmond, Virginia, 1916
Art Institute of Chicago, 1936
WPA, Chicago, 1940
Studied in Sea Islands, Georgia, on Rosenwald Fellowship, 1944-1945
Studied in Jamaica, Cuba, and Haiti on Guggenheim Fellowship, 1949
Teacher, Centre d'Art, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1949-1951
Major Exhibitions:
Three Masters: Eldzier Cortor, Hughie Lee-Smith and Archibald John Motley, Jr., Kenkeleba Gallery, New York, 1988

Allan Rohan Crite
Born Plainfield, New Jersey, 1910
One of the few African American artists to work briefly for the Federal Arts Project (FAP), 1930s
Studied at School of the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, 1939
A.B., Harvard University Extension School, 1968
Lives and works in Boston
Major Exhibitions:
Widely exhibited since the 1920s
Harmon Foundation Exhibitions, 1930s
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1936
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1939
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1978
Allan Crite's Boston, The Boston Athenaeum, 1997

Roy DeCarava
Born New York, 1919
Cooper Union Art School, 1938-1940
Harlem Art Center, New York, 1944-1945
Founder and Director, A Photographer's Gallery, New York, 1954-1956
Freelance photographer, New York, 1959-1968 and since 1975
Professor of art, Cooper Union Institute, New York, 1969-1972 and 1975-1988
Distinguished Professor of Art, Hunter College, New York, since 1988
Major Exhibitions: Always the Young Strangers, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1953
Through Black Eyes, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1969
The Nation's Capitol in Photographs, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1976
Jazz pa Fotografiska, Fotografiska Museet, Stockholm, 1986
Recent Photographs, Witkin Gallery, New York, 1990
Roy DeCarava: A Retrospective, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1997

Beauford Delaney
Born Knoxville, Tennessee, 1901
Studied at the Massachusetts Normal School, 1924
Moved to New York City, 1929
Moved to Paris, 1953
Died 1979
Major Exhibitions:
Vendome Gallery, Artists' Gallery, New York, 1940s
RoKo Gallery, New York, 1940s
Gallerie Paul Fachetti, 1960
Black Master, Studio Museum in Harlem, 1978

Aaron Douglas
Born Topeka, Kansas, 1899
B.F.A., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 1922
Studied under Winold Reiss in New York, 1924-1927
L'Académie Scandinave, Paris, 1931
M.A., Columbia University Teachers College, New York, 1944
Founder/Chair of art department, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1937-1966
Died 1979
Major Exhibitions:
D'Caz-Delbo Gallery, New York, 1934
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1937
Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1948, 1952, 1953
Newark Museum, New Jersey, 1971
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1982

Robert Scott Duncanson
Born New York state, 1821
Moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, 1840
First traveled to Europe, 1853
Sought exile in Canada, 1863-1865
Traveled to England and Scotland and exhibited major works, 1866
Returned to Cincinnati, 1867
Died 1872
Major Exhibitions:
Two Centuries of Black American Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1976
Sharing Traditions: Five Artists in Nineteenth-Century America, National Museum of American Art, 1985
Free Within Ourselves: African-American Artists in the Collection of the National Museum of American Art, National Museum of American Art, 1992

Melvin Edwards
Born Houston, 1937
B.F. A., University of Southern California
Assistant Professor, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 1970-1972
Assistant Professor, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1972 to present
Major Exhibitions:
Arts as Advocate, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1971
Tradition and Conflict: Images of a Turbulent Decade, 1963-1973, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1985
Lynch Fragment Series, Robeson Center Gallery, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1985
Melvin Edwards Sculpture: A Thirty-Year Retrospective 1963-1993, Newerger Museum of Art, State University of New York at Purchase, 1993
Sources: Multicultural Influences on Contemporary African American Sculptors, The Art Gallery, University of Maryland, College Park, 1994
Twentieth-Century American Sculpture at the White House, First Ladies' Garden, the White House, Washington, D.C., 1996

Minnie Evans
Born Long Creek, North Carolina, 1892
Died 1987
Major Exhibitions:
Retrospective Exhibition, Church of the Epiphany, New York, 1966
Solo Exhibition, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1975
North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 1986

Meta Warrick Fuller
Born Philadelphia, 1877
Attended Pennsylvania Museum and School for the Industrial Arts, 1894-1899
Attended L'École des Beaux Arts and Académie Colarossi, Paris, 1899
Died 1968
Major Exhibitions:
Annual exhibitions at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 1906, 1908, 1920, 1923
Making of America Exhibition, New York, 1931
Harmon Foundation, 1931
Exposition of the Art of the American Negro, 1851-1940
Tanner Art Galleries, Chicago, 1940
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1961
Three Generations of African American Women Sculptors: A Study in Paradox, Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum, Philadelphia, 1996-1998

Sam Gilliam
Born Tupelo, Mississippi, 1933
M.S., University of Louisville, 1961
L.H.D., University of Louisville, 1980
L.H.D., Northwestern University, 1990
Relinquished figurative style for Washington Color Field, 1963
Relinquished narrative in compositions, c. 1982
Major Exhibitions:
Gilliam/Krebs/McGowin, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1969
Gilliam/Edwards/Williams: Extensions, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, 1974
Modern Painters at the Corcoran: Sam Gilliam, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1983
African American Art from the Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 1990
Golden Windows Inside Gold, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1993-1995
Forty-Fourth Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Michael D. Harris
Born Cleveland, Ohio, 1948
M.F.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1979
M.A., Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 1991
M. Phil., Yale University, 1991
Ph.D., Yale University, 1991
Assistant Professor, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia, 1981-1993
Georgia State University, 1993-1995
Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1995 to present
Major Exhibitions:
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1979
AfriCobra: The First Twenty Years, Southern Arts Federation, 1990
University of Massachusetts at Boston, 1991
Nexus Gallery, Chastain Park, Atlanta, Georgia, 1994

James V. Herring
Born Clio, South Carolina, 1887
Studied at Syracuse University, Columbia University, and Harvard University
Instructor, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1921
Chairman, Art Department, Howard University, 1931-1952
Opened Barnett-Aden Gallery, Washington, D.C., 1943
Died 1969
Major Exhibitions:
Two Centuries of Black American Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1976
Reflections of a Southern Heritage: Twentieth-Century Black Artists of the Southeast, Gibbes Art Gallery, Washington, D.C., 1979

Earl J. Hooks
Born 1927
B.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1945-1949
Catholic University, Washington, D.C., 1949-1951
Graduate certificate, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 1954
Certificate in ceramics, School of American Craftsman, New York, 1954-1955
Professor/Chair of art department, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1961-1967
Indiana University Northwest Campus, 1954-1961
Major Exhibitions:
Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1966
Carl Van Vechten Gallery of Fine Arts, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1985
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1954, 1957, 1963
Art Institute of Chicago, 1967
Lagos, Nigeria, 1977

Margo Humphrey
Born Oakland, California, 1942
B.A., California College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, California, 1972
M.A., Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, 1974
Resident, Tamarind Institute, New Mexico, 1977
Associate Professor of art, University of Maryland, College Park, 1989 to present
Major Exhibitions
New Perspectives, Oakland Museum, California, 1968
Herstory, Oakland Museum, California, 1990
Through Sisters' Eyes: Children's Books Illustrated by African-American Artists, National Museum of Women in the Arts Library and Research Center, Washington, D.C., 1992
Brody's Gallery, Washington, D.C., 1992

Clementine Hunter
Born Cloutierville, Louisiana, c. 1887
Began as domestic, Melrose Plantation, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 1925
Began painting, 1940
Began to exhibit, 1945
Died 1988
Major Exhibitions:
Clementine Hunter: Primitive Painter, Northwestern State University, Natchitoches, Louisiana, 1955
Solo Exhibition, Delgado Museum, 1955
La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, California,1970
Forever Free: Art by African American Women 1862-1980, Illinois State University, Normal, 1981
A Centennial Salute to Clementine Hunter, New Orleans Museum of Art, 1985
Clementine Hunter, American Folk Artist: A Retrospective Exhibition, Museum of African American Life and Culture, Dallas, 1993

Wilmer Jennings
Born Atlanta, Georgia, 1910
B.S., Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia, 1933
Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island, 1940s
Jewelry Designer, Imperial Pearl, Rhode Island, 1948-1979
Died 1990
Major Exhibitions
Black Printmakers and the W.P.A., The Lehman College Art Gallery, Bronx, New York, 1989
Against the Odds: African-American Artists and the Harmon Foundation, Newark Museum, New Jersey, 1989
Alone in a Crowd: Prints of the 1930s by African-American Artists; From the Collection of Reba and Dave Williams, American Federation of the Arts, 1993

William H. Johnson
Born Florence, South Carolina, 1901
National Academy of Design, New York, 1921-1926
Moved to Paris, 1926
Traveled to Tunisia, North Africa, 1932
Returned to New York, 1938
Teacher, Harlem Community Arts Center, WPA, 1939-1943
Died 1970
Major Exhibitions:
Harmon Foundation Exhibitions, 1930-1937
Paintings by William H. Johnson, Alma Reed Galleries, New York, 1941
American Negro Art: Contemporary Painting and Sculpture, Newark Museum, New Jersey, 1944
William H. Johnson: A Retrospective Exhibit, Countee Cullen Branch, New York Public Library, 1956-1957
Harlem Renaissance: Art of Black America, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1987
The Blues Aesthetic: Black Culture and Modernism, Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, D.C., 1989
Homecoming: William H. Johnson and Afro-Americana, 1938-1946, National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C., 1991

Lois Mailou Jones
Born Boston, Massachusetts, 1905
Designers Art School of Boston, 1927-1928
Académie Julian, Paris, 1937-1938
A.B., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1945
Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Paris, 1962
Chair, Palmer Memorial Institute, Sedalia, North Carolina, 1928-1930
Professor, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1930-1977
Died 1998
Major Exhibitions:
Atlanta University Annual Exhibition, Georgia, 1949
Centre d'Art, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1954
Société des Artistes Français, Grand-Palais, France, 1966
Boston Museum of Fine Arts (retrospective), 1973
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1994

Jacob Lawrence
Born Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1917
Harlem Art Workshop, New York, 1932-1939
American Artists School, New York 1937-1939
Instructor, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine, Summers, 1954, 1968-1972
Instructor, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York, 1955-1970
Instructor, Five Towns Music and Art Foundation, Cedarhurst, Long Island, 1955-1962 and 1966-1968
Full Professor, University of Washington, Seattle, 1970
Major Exhibitions:
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1974
Midtown Payson Galleries, New York, 1993
Jacob Lawrence Gallery, University of Washington, Seattle, 1994
Art Institute of Chicago, 1995
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1996
National Academy of Design, New York, 1996

Norman Lewis
Born New York, 1909
Columbia University, New York Instructor
Savage Studio, New York, 1935-1937
Harlem Art Center, General Art Project, New York, 1936-1939
Art Students League, New York, 1972-1977
Died 1979
Major Exhibitions:
Willard Gallery, New York, 1949, 1950-1954, 1957
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951
Art Institute of Chicago, 1956
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1958
Robeson Center Gallery, Newark, New Jersey, 1985
Kenkeleba Gallery, New York, 1989

Richard Mayhew
Born Amityville, New York, 1924
Columbia University, New York, 1953-1957
Art Students League, New York, 1956-1957
Spiral member, 1963
Instructor, Brooklyn Museum Art School, 1963-1968
Art Students League, New York, 1965-1971
Instructor, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, 1971-1975
Professor, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, beginning 1977
Major Exhibitions:
Brooklyn Museum, New York, 1955
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minnesota, 1968
High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1969
Newark Museum, New Jersey, 1971
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1978

Jerome Meadows
Born Bronx, New York, 1951
B.F.A., Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island, 1973
M.F.A., University of Maryland, College Park, 1981
Instructor, North Adams State College, Massachusetts, 1974-1975
Department Chair, Gallery Director, Baltimore School for the Arts, Maryland, 1982-1985
Assistant Professor, College of Fine Arts, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1988-1992
Major Exhibitions:
Public Sculptures:
Carry the Rainbow on Your Shoulders, Unity Park, Washington, D.C.
Martin Luther King Living Memorial, Anchorage, Alaska
Truths that Rise from the Roots Remembered, African American Heritage Park, Alexandria, Virginia
To Create the Beloved Community, Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial, Albuquerque, New Mexico

William McNeil
Born Los Angeles, 1967
B.A., University of Maryland, College Park, 1996
J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 1997
Major Exhibitions:
The James McLaughlin Memorial Staff Show, The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C., 1994-1996

Sam Middleton
Born New York, 1927
Studied at the Instituto Allende, Mexico, 1956
Currently lives and works in Amsterdam
Major Exhibitions:
Excelsior Gallery, Mexico City, Mexico, 1957
Gallery Silo, Madrid, Spain, 1960
Contemporary Arts, New York, 1962
South Yarra Gallery, Melbourne, Australia, 1964
Muzik van nu, Stedlijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1966

Keith Morrison
Born Jamaica, 1942
M.A., Art Institute of Chicago, 1965
Began teaching career that included positions at Fisk University,
DePaul University, University of Illinois, University of Chicago, University of Maryland, Maryland Institute College of Art, and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1967
Relinquished Abstract Expressionist style for African and Caribbean figural themes, c. 1975
International Award for Painting, Organization for African Unity, Monrovia, Liberia, 1978
Major Exhibitions:
Contemporary Visual Expressions, Anacostia Museum, Washington, D.C., 1987
Introspectives: Contemporary Art by Americans and Brazilians of African Descent, California Afro-American Museum, Los Angeles, 1989
New Jamaican Painting, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1997

Mary Lovelace O'Neal
Born Jackson, Mississippi, 1942
B.F.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1964
M.F.A., Columbia University, New York, 1969
Began teaching career that included positions at San Francisco Art Institute; University of California, Berkeley; California College of Arts and Crafts; and Humboldt State University, 1970
Began current career at University of California, Berkeley, 1979
Biennale Internationale des Arts Award, Dakar, Senegal, 1993-1994
Major Exhibitions:
Introspectives: Contemporary Art by Americans and Brazilians of African Descent, California Afro-American Museum, Los Angeles, 1989
Museum of Asilah, Morocco, 1989
Mary Lovelace O'Neal: Paintings and Prints, de Saisset Museum, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California, 1990
Mary Lovelace O'Neal, Institute Chileno Norte Americano de Cultura, Santigo, Chile, 1991
No Justice, No Peace? Resolutions...., California Afro-American Museum, Los Angeles, 1993
Berkeley Art Center, Berkeley, California, 1995

James Phillips
Born Brooklyn, New York, 1945
Philadelphia College of Art, 1964-1965
Artist-in-residence, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1971-1972
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1973-1977
Major Exhibitions:
Weusi Numba Ya sanaa Gallery, New York, 1970
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1972
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1972
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1973
American Center, Tokyo, 1981
Kenkeleba House, New York, 1983
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1985

Stephanie Pogue
Born Shelby, North Carolina, 1944
Syracuse University, New York, 1962-1963
B.F.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1963-1966
M.F.A., Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 1968
Assistant/Associate/Chair/Gallery director, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1968-1981
Professor/Chair, University of Maryland, College Park, 1981 to present
Major Exhibitions:
El Museo de Arte Moderna La Tertulia, Cali, Colombia, 1976
Cinque Gallery, New York, 1977
City Museum of Fine Arts, Taipei, Taiwan, 1983
Centre d'Art de Rouge-Cloitre, Brussels, Belgium, 1988
Museo do Gravura, Curitiba, Brazil, 1991
Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1966
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1975
James V. Herring Art Gallery, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1992
Bearing Witness: Contemporary Works by African American Women Artists, Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia, 1996

P. H. Polk
Born Bessemer, Alabama, 1898
Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, 1916-1920
Correspondence course in photography, 1922
Apprenticed with Fred Jensen, Chicago, 1922-1926
Owned and operated a private portrait studio in Tuskegee, Alabama, 1927
Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, 1928-1938 and 1933-1984
Owned and operated a private portrait studio in Atlanta, Georgia, 1938
Died 1984
Major Exhibitions:
Art Institute of Pittsburgh, n.d.
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1981
New York Museum of National History, n.d.
Washington Gallery of Photography, n.d.

Charles Ethan Porter
Born Hartford, Connecticut, 1847
Began study at National Academy of Design, New York, 1869
Traveled to Europe, 1881-1884
Opened studio in Rockville, Connecticut, 1890
Became charter member of Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts, 1910
Died 1923
Major Exhibitions:
National Academy of Design, New York 1871, 1876, 1885
Vorce's Gallery, Hartford, Connecticut, 1889
Hartford Decorative Arts Society, Hartford, Connecticut, n.d.

James A. Porter
Born Baltimore, Maryland, 1905
B.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1927
Institute of Art and Archeology, University of Paris, Certificat de Préséance, 1935
M.A., New York University, 1937
Head of Department of Art, Howard University, Washington, D.C., beginning in 1953
Died 1970
Major Exhibitions:
Harmon Foundation, 1928
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1929
American Watercolor Society, 1932
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1937, 1939, 1945, 1965
American Negro Exposition, Chicago, 1940
James A. Porter Gallery, 1970
James A. Porter, Artist and Historian: The Memory of the Legacy, Howard University Gallery of Art, 1993

Martin Puryear
Born Washington, D.C., 1941
B.A., Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., 1959-1963
Swedish Royal Academy of Art, Stockholm, 1966-1968
M.F.A., Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 1969-1971
Teacher, Peace Corps, Sierra Leone, West Africa, 1964-1966
Assistant Professor of art, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1971-1973; University of Maryland, College Park, 1974-1978
Designer, SCAN, Scandinavia, 1968
Major Exhibitions:
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1978 and 1985
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1979 and 1981
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1980
Art Institute of Chicago, 1991
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D. C., 1992

Ray Saunders
Born Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,1934
B.F.A., Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1960
M.F.A., California College of Arts and Crafts, 1961
Lives and works primarily in Oakland, California
Major Exhibitions:
Stephen Wirz Gallery, San Francisco, 1980
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, group exhibit, 1989
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia,1990
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, group exhibit
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, group exhibit, 1995

Augusta Savage
Born Green Cove Springs, Florida, 1892
Tallahassee State Normal School (now Florida A&M), 1915
Cooper Union, New York, 1921
Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Paris, c. 1929
Founded Savage Studio of Arts and Crafts, New York, 1932
Assistant supervisor, Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Federal Art Project (FAP), beginning 1936
Commissioned portrait artist
Died New York,1962
Major Exhibitions:
Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Paris, c. 1929
Argent Gallery, New York, 1932
Anderson Art Gallery, New York, 1932

Charles Sebree
Born Kentucky, 1914
Studied at the Art Institute of Chicago
WPA, Illinois, 1936-1938
Died 1985
Major Exhibitions:
American Negro Exhibition, 1940
South Side Community Arts Center, Chicago, 1941
Institute of Modern Art, Boston, 1943
RoKo Gallery, New York, 1949
Retrospective Exhibition, Evans-Tibbs Collection, Washington, D.C., 1984

Frank Smith
Born Chicago, 1939
B.F.A., University of Illinois, Chicago, 1958
Began teaching career in Chicago Public Schools, 1959
Began career at Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1970
Joined African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists (AfriCobra), 1970
M.F.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1972
Diaspora-3 Award, Paramaraibo, Suriname, 1982
Major Exhibitions:
Since the Harlem Renaissance: 50 Years of Afro-American Art, Bucknell Center Gallery, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, 1985
National Museum of Fine Arts, Kinshasa, Zaire, 1988
AfriCobra: The First Twenty Years, Nexus Contemporary Art Center, Atlanta, Georgia, 1990
Norman Parish Gallery, Washington, D.C., 1993
Japan Information and Cultural Center, Washington, D.C., 1995

Vincent Smith
Born New York, 1929
Studied at Brooklyn Museum Art School, 1954-1956
M.E., Skowhegan School of Painting, Maine
Empire State College, 1953-1956
Studied at State University of New York, Saratoga, 1980
Major Exhibitions:
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1974
Portland Museum of Art, Maine, 1974
Cooper Square Gallery, New York, 1979
Journey to the Source, Spectrum IV Gallery, New Rochelle, New York, 1982
Spiral Gallery, Brooklyn, New York, 1988
Anderson Gallery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 1990
Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin, 1990
Robeson Gallery, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1994

Gilda Snowden
Born in Detroit, Michigan, 1954
B.F.A., Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, 1977
M.A., Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, 1978
M.F.A., Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, 1979
Continues to live and work in Detroit
Major Exhibitions:
Signature Images, Detroit Institute of Arts, group exhibit, 1990
Detroit Institute of Arts, group exhibit, 1991
Out of Sight, Out of Mind, Center for Creative Studies, Detroit, Michigan, 1995
A Detroit Tradition: Collecting African American Art, Community Arts Gallery, Wayne State University, group exhibit, 1996

Frank Stewart
Born Nashville, Tennessee, 1949
B.F.A., Cooper Union
Instructor, State University of New York, Purchase, New York
Instructor, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York
Artist-in-residence, Kenkeleba House, New York, 1987
Associate Director, Contemporary American Artists Series, Inc.
Major Exhibitions:
Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D.C., 1977
International Center of Photography, New York, 1979
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1979
Gallery 62, National Urban League, New York, 1980
Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio, 1983
Kenkeleba House Gallery, New York, 1986

Lou Stovall
Born Athens, Georgia, 1937
George Walter Vincent Smith Museum, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1954-1956
Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island, 1956-1957
B.F.A., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1965
Owner and operator of Workshop, Inc., founded in 1968
Major Exhibitions:
The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C., 1972
Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland, 1975
El Museo de Arte Moderna La Tertulia, Cali, Colombia, 1976
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1980
The American Embassy, Moscow, U.S.S.R., 1984
The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1992
Fondo Del Sol, Washington, D.C., 1996

Henry O. Tanner
Born Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1859
Entered the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1879
Moved to Paris, 1891
Included in World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893
Died 1936
Major Exhibitions:
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1880
National Academy of Design, New York, 1885
World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
Salon, Paris, 1894
Art Institute of Chicago, 1908
Solo Exhibition, American Art Galleries, New York, 1908
Solo Exhibition, Thurber Art Galleries, Chicago, 1913
Solo Exhibition, Grand Central Art Galleries, New York, 1924
Two Centuries of Black American Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1976
Sharing Traditions: Five Black Artists in Nineteenth-Century America, National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C., 1985
Henry Ossawa Tanner, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1991

Bill Taylor
Born Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1927
Washington Institute of Contemporary Art
Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.
Major Exhibitions:
Howard University Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., n.d.
Atlanta University, Georgia, n.d.
Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, n.d.
Los Angeles County Museum, n.d.
B'nai B'rith Klutznick National Jewish Museum, Washington, D.C., n.d.

Alma Thomas
Born Columbus, Georgia, 1896
B.S., Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1924
M.F.A., Columbia University, New York, 1934
American University, Washington, D.C., 1950-1960
Teacher, Shaw Junior High School, Washington, D.C., 1924-1960
Vice President, Barnett-Aden Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Died 1978
Major Exhibitions:
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1966
Baltimore Museum, Maryland, 1970
State Armory, Wilmington, Delaware, 1971
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1972
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1972

Yvonne Edwards Tucker
Born Chicago, 1941
B.F.A. Otis Art Institute (now Otis/Parson's School of Design), Los Angeles, 1968
M.F.A. Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles, 1968
University of Miami, 1971-1972
Florida State University, 1979-1980
Assistant Professor, Miami-Dade Community College, South Campus, 1968-1973
Associate Professor, Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, since 1973
Co-founder, Harambee Council of Tallahassee
Administrator and project director of folk and fine arts festivals annually from 1980-1990
Major Exhibitions:
Contemporary Gallery of Fine Arts, Dallas, 1969
Micanopy Gallery of Fine Arts, Florida, 1972
Morgan State College, Baltimore, Maryland, 1975
Malcolm Brown Gallery, Shaker Heights, Ohio, 1981
Contemporary Art Center, Kansas City, Missouri, 1989
Florida State University, Tallahassee, 1991

James VanDerZee
Born Massachusetts, 1886
Assistant Photographer, Gertz Department Store, Newark, New Jersey, 1915-1916
Owner, Guarantee Photos and GGG Photo Studio, Harlem, 1916-1968
Metropolitan Museum of Art Life Fellowship Award, 1970
President's Living Legacy Award, Washington, D.C., 1978
Honorary Doctorate, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1983
Died 1983
Major Exhibitions:
Harlem on My Mind: Cultural Capital of Black America 1900-1968, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1969
The Legacy of James VanDerZee: A Portrait of Black Americans, Alternative Center for International Arts, New York, 1979
VanDerZee Photographer: 1886-1983, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C., 1993

Laura Wheeler Waring
Born Hartford, Connecticut, 1887
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1907-1910
Harvard University Summer School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1918
Columbia University Summer School, New York, 1920
Académie de la Grande Chaumière, Paris, 1924-1925
Instructor, Art Department, Cheyney State Teachers College, Cheyney, Pennsylvania, 1906-1925
Director, Art Department, Cheyney State Teachers College, Cheyney, Pennsylvania, 1925-1948
Died 1948
Major Exhibitions:
Galerie du Luxembourg, Paris, 1929
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1940, 1949
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1944, 1997
Brooklyn Museum, New York, 1945
Newark Museum, New Jersey, 1989

James Lesesne Wells
Born Atlanta, Georgia, 1902
Moved to Harlem, New York, 1919
National Academy of Design, New York, 1924
Columbia University Teachers College, 1924-1928
Instructor of design, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1929
Summer in Paris, 1937
Retired from Howard University as Professor Emeritus, 1969
Traveled to Africa, 1969
Died 1993
Major Exhibitions:
Paintings and Prints by James L. Wells, Carl Van Vechten Gallery of Art, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1972/1973
James L. Wells: Retrospective of Prints and Paintings, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1977
James Lesesne Wells: Sixty Years in Art, Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, D.C., 1986

Charles White
Born Chicago, 1918
Art Institute of Chicago, 1937
Art Students League, New York
Taller de Gràfica Popular, Mexico
Teacher, South Side Community Art Center, Chicago, 1939-1940
Artist-in-residence, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1945
Teacher, Otis Art Institute (now Otis/Parson's School of Design), Los Angeles, until 1979
Died 1979
Major Exhibitions:
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1939, 1967
Institute of Modern Art, Boston, 1943
First World Festival of Negro Arts, Dakar, Senegal, 1966
Pushkin Museum, Moscow, 1968
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1968
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1969
La Jolla Museum of Art, California, 1970
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1971

Walter Williams
Born Brooklyn, New York, 1920
Brooklyn Museum School, n.d. (post-World War II)
Artist-in-residence, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1968-1969
Whitney Museum Fellowship, 1955
Obrig Prize of the National Academy of Design, New York, 1972
Major Exhibitions:
RoKo Gallery, New York, 1954
Studio Museum in Harlem, New York, 1982

William T. Williams
Born Cross Creek, North Carolina, 1942
A.A.S., City University of New York, New York Community College, 1962
B.F.A., Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York,1966
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine 1965
M.F.A., Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 1968
Professor/Instructor of art, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York,1970
School of Visual Arts, 1970
Professor of art, City University of New York, Brooklyn College, since 1971
Major Exhibitions:
American Embassy, Moscow, 1969
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1969
Foundation Maeght, St. Paul, France, 1970
Kolner Konstmarkt, Cologne, Germany, 1971
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1971
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, 1972
Contemporary Visual Expressions, Anacostia Museum, Washington, D.C., 1987
Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey, 1991

Ellis Wilson
Born Mayfield, Kentucky, 1899
Studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, early 1920s
WPA, New York, 1930s
Guggenheim Fellowship, 1944
Traveled to Haiti, 1950s
Died 1977
Major Exhibitions:
Retrospective Exhibition, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee, 1971

Hale Woodruff
Born Cairo, Illinois, 1900
John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana, c. 1918
Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Académie Scandinavia, Paris
Académie Moderne, Paris
Worked on frescoes with Diego Rivera in Mexico, 1936
Professor, Atlanta University, Georgia, 1931-1945
Instructor/Professor Emeritus, New York University, 1947-1970
Initiated annual art shows for black artists, Atlanta University, Georgia, 1941
Died 1980
Major Exhibitions:
Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1967
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1967
San Diego Art Museum, 1967
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1967, 1976
Newark Museum, New Jersey, 1971
Bellevue Art Museum and the Art Museum Association of America, 1985

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